Planning Commission






1.1      The Concept

1.2      The Tanzania Vision 2025

1.2.2 High quality Livelihood

1.2.2 Peace, Stability and Unity

1.2.3 Good Governance

1.2.4 A well Educated and Learning Society

1.2.5 A strong and Competitive Economy


2.1 Tanzania's Past Visions

2.2 Impediments

2.2.1 Donor-Dependence Syndrome and a Dependent and Defeatist Development Mindset

2.2.2 A Weak Economy and Low Capacity for Economic Management

2.2.3 Failure in Governance and Organization for Development

2.2.4 Ineffective Implementation syndrome


3.1 High Quality Livelihood

3.2 Good Governance and the Rule of Law

3.3 A Strong and Competitive Economy


4.1 Developmental Mindset and Empowering Culture

4.2 Competence and Competitiveness

4.3 Good Governance and the Rule of Law




We are standing at the threshold of the 21st Century, a Century that will be characterised by competition. It is clear, therefore, that it will be a Century dominated by those with advanced technological capacity, high productivity, modern and efficient transport and communication infrastructure and, above all highly skilled manpower imbued with initiative. If we are to be active participants in the global developments of the twenty-first century we must, as a Nation, find ways of improving and strengthening ourselves in all these areas.

In coming to terms with this challenge the people of Tanzania, led by their Government, recognised the need to prepare a New National Development Vision which will guide economic and social development efforts up to the year 2025. The objective of this Development Vision is to awaken, co-ordinate and direct the people's efforts, minds and our national resources towards those core sectors that will enable us attain our development goals and withstand the expected intensive economic competition ahead of us.

It is necessary, therefore, that this Development Vision is shared and supported by all Tanzanians. That is why we sought the views and consensus of a wide cross-section of our society during the formulation process. The draft Development Vision was discussed by various societal groups including Honourable Members of Parliament, all political parties, leaders of various religious denominations, women and youth organisations, chambers of commerce and industry, farmers, professional associations, renowned personalities in our nation's history and ordinary Tanzanians. A Development Vision  formulated through such a process is an important pillar in building that level of national unity and cohesion needed to ensure economic development in an environment of peace, security and patriotism.

The formulation of this Vision benefited from an in-depth assessment of our nation's history and direction. We made an evaluation of where we came from, where we are now, and where we want to go. We reviewed our politics and policies, as well as our development planning framework and its implementation mechanisms. We have sought to learn from both our strengths and our shortcomings in these past initiatives. 

Development Vision 2025 has identified that kind of enabling environment that is essential for the nation to flourish economically, socially, politically and culturally. It has taken into account expected changes and trends in the world of tomorrow. The implementation of the Vision will have to include developing Tanzania's position vis a vis those changes, and the need to deal with them through hard work, initiative, skills, as well as to make use of the many opportunities that will appear and the resources available in our country.

Determination and discipline in planning and implementation is the key to success. In reaching a national consensus on this Vision, we have issued a declaration of our determination to disentangle ourselves from the scourge of poverty. The task before us, therefore, is for each one of us in our different capacities to be aware of, and implement with discipline, our different  roles in order to achieve the objectives we have set for ourselves. Ministries and other government institutions, the private sector, non-governmental organisations, civil society, co-operative societies, villages and all other social groups must direct themselves to contributing towards effective implementation of the objectives of this Vision.

Peace, stability and security of citizens and their property constitute a fundamental and necessary environment for development. Without these prerequisites, this Vision will be meaningless and no development will occur.It is, therefore,the responsibility of each one of us to  eschew anything which can divide Tanzanians, such as on the basis of religion, tribe, race, gender or place of origin. It is also the responsibility of each one of us to isolate and censure anyone who entertains, promotes or nurtures disrespect, disharmony, hatred and mistrust in our country. I believe that the majority of Tanzanians are patriotic people of integrity, ready to come together to fight these vices.

I am confident that with the unity which we already have as a Nation, we will succeed in the implementation of this Vision. What can be done today should not wait for tomorrow.

God bless Tanzania and abundantly provide us with the strength and capacity to implement our Vision.


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The need to formulate a new economic and social development vision for Tanzania emanated from the outcomes of economic reforms - especially those which were pursued since 1986. These social and economic reform measures were taken in response to the economic crisis that had persisted in the country and the world as a whole since the early years of 1980s. Secondly, the government had realised that those earlier development policies and strategies were not in consonance with the principles of a market led economy and technological development occurring in the world. The government therefore started preparing three year reform programmes with strategies, generally, focusing on only a few economic and social areas, and the areas of focus changing frequently. These structural adjustment programmes, have been followed for a long time, about fifteen years. Over this long period, the whole philosophy of working for the country's development and that of its people started losing direction and as a result the country lost its vision which had originally been based on long-term development objectives. The government and the society in general realised that the nation lacked direction and a philosophy for long-term development. The new Development Vision 2025 feels this vacuum.

The Government started the formulation exercise of this development Vision in 1995. A Team of Experts, appointed from various sectors in the society, was the focal point of this exercise under the auspices of the Planning Commission. Observing the need to build a national consensus over the Vision's objectives, people's participation was advocated right from the early stages of the exercise. People's participation was effected through various methods including conducting symposia, interviews and dialogue with various people, and meetings which brought together people from various social settings in society. The mass media was also closely involved through publishing special articles and features in newspapers, debates and discussions in radio and television programmes.

The basic issues in the development Vision are elaborated in six areas. First is an elaboration of the concept and scope of national development vision. This part describes attributes our country is expected to have attained by the year 2025. These include people having attained a high quality of life; peace, tranquillity and national unity; good governance; an educated society imbued with an ambition to develop; and an economy which is competitive with sustained growth for the benefit of all people.

Secondly, is a brief analysis of approaches of previous national development visions pursued since independence. This analysis spells out the observed successes and problems encountered which justified the need to formulate the new Development Vision.

The three principal objectives of the Vision 2025 - which are; achieving quality and good life for all; good governance and the rule of law; and building a strong and resilient economy that can effectively withstand global competition - have been described in detail in section three. These objectives not only deal with economic issues, but also include social issues such as education, health, the environment and increasing involvement of the people in working for their own development. The thrust of these objectives is to attain a sustainable development of the people

The fourth section deals with important issues which must be borne in mind during the implementation of the vision's objectives. It outlines the basic pillars with which the society at large will be guided in order to ensure a successful implementation of the Vision. These implementation driving forces or pillars, include among others, the need for Tanzania society as a whole treasure a competitive development mindset as well as nurturing a self-reliance culture. 

The fifth section offers basic guidelines on the implementation of the Vision which include noting the importance of undertaking reviews and reforms of existing laws and structures of various institutions in order to ensure that they meet the requirements of implementing the objectives of this Vision. The participation of the people in preparing and implementing plans for their own development is also emphasized, including putting in place an appropriate framework for coordinating and evaluating the implementation of the Vision. It is stressed that only through this participatory process that the Vision will be able to promote people's development and its management by people themselves. These are basic issues in making the people accept the responsibility to ensure the realization of their own development aspirations.  

Lastly, I believe that if we shall internalize in our minds all the important issues outlined in this Vision, our nation will have made a very big stride in, promoting the desire for economic development and people's welfare. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Team of Experts and other people who have participated in the preparation of this Vision. I also wish to thank development partners from outside the country for their financial and technical support towards a successful accoplishment of this exercise. I recognise especially the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Government of Japan,  the European Union and Government of the Republic of Ireland.

It is my hope that these and the other partners will continue to work with us during the implementation stage; particularly by giving us moral and material support in implementing the priority areas nationally identified to lead us towards the attainment of the objectives of this Vision 2025.


Minister of State and Vice Chairman
Planning Commission

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1.1        The Concept

By the mid-1980s, the government had realised that the past development policies and strategies were not adequately responding to changing market and technological conditions in the regional and world economy and were also not adapting to changes in the domestic socio-economic conditions.

In response, beginning mid-1986, the Government adopted socio-economic reforms which continue to be implemented to date. However, it has increasingly become apparent to the Government and its people that these socio-economic reforms are not adequately informed by a national long-term development philosophy and direction.

It was out of the realization that these reforms had to be underpinned by a long-term development philosophy, if they were to be owned and sustained by the people, that the idea of formulating a national vision emerged. Moreover, the Government recognised the importance of re-kindling the hopes and expectations of the people as well as their patriotism and nationalistic aspirations thus reinforcing the need for a national vision.

A vision for development is an articulation of a desirable future condition or situation which a nation envisages to attain and the plausible course of action to be taken for its achievement. A national vision therefore seeks to actively mobilize the people and other resources towards the achievement of shared goals. A shared vision arouses people's aspirations and creates the spark that lifts the nation out of the mundane. In the process, it instils the courage and determination to rise to challenges at the individual, community and national levels. A vision is a vehicle of hope and an inspiration for motivating the people to search and work harder for the betterment of their livelihood and for posterity.

1.2 The Tanzania Vision 2025

A Tanzanian who is born today will be fully grown up, will have joined the working population and will probably be a young parent by the year 2025. Similarly, a Tanzanian who has just joined the labour force will be preparing to retire by the year 2025. What kind of society will have been created by such Tanzanians in the year 2025? What is envisioned is that the society these Tanzanians will be living in by then will be a substantially developed one with a high quality livelihood. Abject poverty will be a thing of the past. In other words, it is envisioned that Tanzanians will have graduated from a least developed country to a middle income country by the year 2025 with a high level of human development. The economy will have been transformed from a low productivity agricultural economy to a semi-industrialized one led by modernized and highly productive agricultural activities which are effectively integrated and buttressed by supportive industrial and service activities in the rural and urban areas. A solid foundation for a competitive and dynamic economy with high productivity will have been laid. Consistent with this vision, Tanzania of 2025 should be a nation imbued with five main attributes;

  • High quality livelihood.

  •  Peace, stability and unity.

  •  Good governance,

  •  A well educated and learning society; and

  • A competitive economy capable of producing sustainable growth and shared benefits.

1.2.1          High Quality Livelihood  

Ideally, a nation's development should be people-centred, based on sustainable and shared growth and be free from abject poverty. For Tanzania, this development means that the creation of wealth and its distribution in society must be equitable and free from inequalities and all forms of social and political relations which inhibit empowerment and effective democratic  and popular participation of social groups (men and women, boys and girls, the young and old and the able-bodied and disabled persons) in society. In particular, by the year 2025, racial and gender imbalances will have been redressed such that economic activities will not be identifiable by gender or race. All social relations and processes which manifest and breed inequality, in all aspects of the society (i.e., law, politics, employment, education, culture), will have been reformed. 

1.2.2          Peace, Stability and Unity

A nation should enjoy peace, political stability, national unity and social cohesion in an environment of democracy and political and social tolerance. Although Tanzania has enjoyed national unity, peace and stability for a long time, these attributes must continue to be cultivated, nurtured and sustained as important pillars for the realization of the Vision.

1.2.3          Good Governance

Tanzania cherishes good governance and the rule of law in the process of creating wealth and sharing benefits in society and seeks to ensure that its people are empowered with the capacity to make their leaders and public servants accountable. By 2025, good governance should have permeated the national socio-economic structure thereby ensuring a culture of accountability, rewarding good performance and effectively curbing corruption and other vices in society.

1.2.4          A Well Educated and Learning Society

Tanzania envisages to be a nation whose people are ingrained with a developmental mindset and competitive spirit. These attributes are driven by education and knowledge and are critical in enabling the nation to effectively utilize knowledge in mobilizing domestic resources for assuring the provision of people's basic needs and for attaining competitiveness in the regional and global economy. Tanzania would brace itself to attain creativity, innovativeness and a high level of quality education in order to respond to development challenges and effectively compete regionally and internationally, cognisant of the reality that competitive leadership in the 21st century will hinge on the level and quality of education and knowledge. To this effect, Tanzania should:

  • Attain self reliance driven by the psychological liberation of the mindset and the people's sense of confidence in order to enable the effective determination and ownership of the development agenda with the primary objective of satisfying the basic needs of all the people - men, women and children.

  • Be a nation whose people have a positive mindset and a culture which cherishes human development through hard work, professionalism, entrepreneurship, creativity, innovativeness and ingenuity and who have confidence in and high respect for all people irrespective of gender. The people must cultivate a community spirit; one which, however, is appropriately balanced with respect for individual initiative

  • Be a nation with high quality of education at all levels; a nation which produces the quantity and quality of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the society's problems, meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global levels.

1.2.5          A strong and Competitive economy

Tanzania should have created a strong, diversified, resilient and competitive economy which can effectively cope with the challenges of development and which can also easily and confidently adapt to the changing market and technological conditions in the regional and global economy    

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2.1 Tanzania's Past Visions

Tanzania has gone through two national visions: first, the Vision to achieve independence. Every Tanzanian understood and accepted that goal, which was a basic human right. However, having attained independence, it was realized that not everybody understood his or her consequent obligation; namely, that enjoying the fruits of independence implied hard work. Hence the post-independence catchword "Uhuru na Kazi".That catchword was intended to exalt the importance of hard work in realizing the development which was championed in the struggle for independence.

The second national Vision was the Arusha Declaration. It articulated a philosophy of socio-economic liberation based on socialism and self-reliance as the long-term national goal of Tanzanians. The Declaration was accepted by the majority of Tanzanians and galvanized them behind its realization. Thus since February 1967, the development vision of Tanzania as well as the policies for social and economic transformation have been guided by the principles and programmes enshrined in the Arusha Declaration.

It is notable, however, that the strategy of the Arusha Declaration did not sufficiently address the complexity and dynamic character of policies and incentive structures which were necessary to effectively drive the development process. The strategy was based overly on state-control of the major means of production, exchange and distribution and on the prospect of a growing and viable public sector (through public investment), as the principal engine of economic growth and development.

Notwithstanding these strategy shortcomings, the Arusha Declaration credibly sought to realize a set of fundamental moral, spiritual, ethical and civil values which stand the test of time. Thus Tanzania today prides itself of and enjoys national unity, social cohesion, peace and stability largely as a result of the Declaration's core social values. These values have to be acknowledged and should form part of the underlying underpinnings of the Vision 2025.

2.2  Impediments

The central thrust of the first two visions was the commitment to achieve substantial progress in attaining higher standards of living as reflected in the various development plans. In particular, Tanzania vowed to eradicate poverty, ignorance and disease. And although reasonable progress has been achieved in the fields of education and health, there is concern that the momentum and the level of progress made in these areas has not been equal to  expectations. In fact, during the 1980s, the signs of reversal in some of the achievements became evident. In this context, the underlying factors and forces which have persistently impeded the realization of the goals of the development plans and programmes need to be identified in order to engineer a break from the past and deploy more appropriate driving forces to assure socio-economic progress for the future. Four main impediments have been identified:

  • A donor dependency syndrome and a dependent and defeatist developmental mindset.

  • A weak and low capacity for economic management.

  • Failures in good governance and in the organization of production and

  • Ineffective implementation syndrome.

2.2.1   Donor-Dependence Syndrome and a Dependent and Defeatist Developmental Mindset

The mindset of the people of Tanzania and their leader has succumbed to donor dependency and has resulted in an erosion of initiative and lack of ownership of the development agenda. This condition has not been conducive to addressing the development challenges with dignity, confidence, determination and persistence through hard work and creativity. The educational system has not been structured to counter this deterioration in the ownership of the development agenda and in fostering self-confidence in the determination of the nation's destiny.

            The following characteristics have become evident:

  • External dependence and the erosion of confidence, dignity and determination have demobilized the ability to effectively utilize human, physical and mental capacities to take initiative and to earnestly search for creative options to solve developmental problems. As a result, considerable potential; capabilities in Tanzania have not been effectively marshaled and deployed for development.

  • The mindset of the leaders and people of Tanzania has neither been supportive of hard work, ingenuity and creativity, nor has it provided a conducive environmental for these attributes to emerge. Thus, there is a high degree of apathy and lack of accountability and self-motivation. Initiative, ingenuity, creativity and innovativeness in society are at a low ebb. Consequently, a culture of admiring "effortless"  success has erupted and, with it, productive  individual initiative and the spirit of the community development have not taken a positive shape.

  •   The level and quality of education that has been attained has not been adequate to meet the growing development challenges and to enable the search for solutions to the development problems that confront the nation. In particular, education has not adequately and appropriately been geared to integrate the individual into the community. Equally, it also has not been able to innovatively engage Tanzanians in entrepreneurship and self-employment.  

2.2.2   A Weak Economy and Low Capacity for Economic Management

The capacity for economic management has not been in concert with the demands for macro-economic stability and has not responded to changing conditions as quickly as it should. Generally, there has been some degree of macroeconomic instability. Policy response to changing conditions has been slow. Assuming that all other factors were constant, this situation would impute a lack of policy-making capacity to anticipate and effectively respond to changing conditions. As a result, an environment which has not been conducive to the sustenance of economic stability necessary for an appreciable and continuous flow of investments has been created. Further aggravating this situation has been the excessive use of administrative controls extending to non-strategic spheres and even precluding the mobilization of capabilities outside the government. The excessive use of administrative controls and regulations have negated the possibility of harnessing market forces to achieve development objectives with the result that the economy has become weak.

The general picture of the Tanzania economy reflects the following:

  • The economy has remained largely untransformed. Agriculture, the backbone of the economy, continues to be dependent mainly or rainfall and on backward technology. Thus agricultural productivity is low and erratic.

  • Productivity level in other sectors has equally remained low. The available domestic resources have not been adequately mobilized and effectively utilized to promote development on a robust and sustainable basis. This low level of productivity also reflects a low degree of creativity and innovativeness including the low level of utilization of science and technology.

  • The structure of the economy has continued to be dominated by primary production, thus making the economy seriously vulnerable of frequent changes in international commodity market conditions and newer technologies which significantly use less raw materials.

Development has generally been characterized by a low level of mobilization of domestic natural, human and financial resources to produce wealth and to raise the standards of living of the people.

2.2.3          Failures in Governance and Organization for development

Over time, and particularly in recent years, there are indications that there is a risk of cracks in social cohesion and national unity taking shape. Corruption and other vices in society have been on the increase. This situation raises great concern. The rule of law and the voices of the people in the development process have tended to be weak. The national institutional and organizational structures have not been reviewed to cope with the demands of the on-going reforms. As a result, these structures have not been supportive of evolving social relations which promote the participation of all partners in development and have equally failed to effectively mobilize domestic resources and capabilities to meet the emerging challenges of market-oriented and private sector-led development.

2.2.4          Ineffective Implementation Syndrome

Tanzanians have developed a propensity to prepare and pronounce plans and programmes, and ambitions which are not accompanied by effective implementation, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. As a result, implementation has been weak. This situation has given rise to the erosion of trust and confidence among the people on their leaders. It is evident that the people are now less enthusiastic about participating in national endeavors. Apathy has set in. 

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The Tanzania Vision 2025 aims at achieving a high quality livelihood for its people. attain good governance through the rule of law and develop a strong and competitive economy. It is envisioned that the following specific achievements would be attainable by the year 2025:

3.1               High quality Livelihood

A high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians is expected to be attained through strategies which ensure the realisation of the following goals:

  • Food self-sufficiency and food security.

  • Universal primary education, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training that is commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond and master the development challenges at all levels.

  • Gender equality and the empowerment of women in all socio-economic and political relations and cultures.

  • Access to quality primary health care for all.

  • Access to quality reproductive health services for all individuals of appropriate ages.

  • Reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates by three-quarters of current levels.

  • Universal access to safe water.

  • Life expectancy comparable to the level attained by typical middle income countries.

  • Absence of abject poverty

3.2     Good Governance and the Rue of Law

It is desired that the Tanzanian society should be characterized by:

  • Desirable moral and cultural uprightness.

  • Strong adherence to and respect for the rule of law

  • Absence of corruption and other vices.

  • A learning society which is confident, learns from its own development
                experience and that of others and owns and determines its own development agenda.

3.3               A Strong and Competitive Economy

The economy is expected to have the following characteristics:

  • A diversified and semi-industrialized economy with a substantial industrial sector comparable to typical middle-income countries.

  • Macroeconomic stability manifested by a low inflation economy and basic macroeconomic balances.

  • A growth rate of 8% per annum or more.

  • An adequate level of physical infrastructure needed to cope with the requirements of the Vision in all sectors.

  • An active and competitive player in the regional and world markets, with the capacity to articulate and promote national interests and to adjust quickly to regional and global market shifts.

It is also envisaged that fast growth will be pursued while effectively reversing current adverse trends in the loss and degradation of environmental resources (such as forests, fisheries, fresh water, climate, soils, biodiversity) and in the accumulation of hazardous substances.

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The Vision 2025 can be realized if Tanzanians capitalize on their strengths and engage the appropriate driving forces for development and effectively avoid the impediments which have held back their development. The major strengths which Tanzanians must capitalize on are national unity, social cohesion, peace and stability. However, these assets, born out of the Arusha Declaration, should not be taken for granted. They have been cultivated over a long period of time and are the pillars upon which the hopes and expectations of the majority of Tanzanians rest. Indeed, there are indications that, in recent years, the momentum derived from these hopes and expectations has been on the decline. The present challenge is to ensure that deliberate efforts are made to rekindle the hope, confidence, faith and commitment among the men, women and the entire citizenry if the goals of the Vision are going to be realised, taking into account the changing conditions.

It is evident that both the global and the Tanzanian economy have changed fundamentally since the adoption of the Arusha Declaration. Tanzanians will therefore have to adapt to these new changes and realities. Specifically, it is important to recognise the following new characteristics of the national and global economy:

  • The on-set of political and economic pluralism.

  • Exposure of the limitations of policies of public sector-led development and administrative control of the economy in a centrally planned fashion.

  • The recognition of individual initiative and the private sector as the central driving forces for building a strong, productive and renewing economy

  • State welfare responsibilities are more focused on cost-effective ways of enhancing access to and the quality of social services.

  • The fast changing market conditions and technological developments

  • The determinants of international economic relations are being influenced by post-cold war geopolitical factors.

  • Nation-state economic behavior is being transformed by globalization and regionalism, trends which undermine inward looking economic nationalism.

These characteristics pose new challenges which demand the adoption of new driving forces capable to graduate Tanzania from a least developed country to a middle income country with a high level of human development characterized in improvements in the quality of livelihood of the people. In this context, the following three key driving forces need to be promoted and utilized:

  • A developmental mindset imbued with confidence, commitment and empowering cultural values.

  • Competence and a spirit of competitiveness; and

  • Good governance and the rule of law.

4.1               Developmental Mindset and Empowering Culture

High priority must be given to education and continuous learning Equally, the effective transformation of the mindset and culture to promote attitudes of self development, community development, confidence and commitment to face development challenges and exploit every opportunity for the improvement of the quality of livelihood is of prime importance. The effective ownership of the development agenda coupled with the spirit of self-reliance, at all societal levels, are major driving forces for the realization of the Vision. Tanzanians should learn to appreciate and honour hard work, creativity, professionalism and entrepreneurship and strive to develop a culture of saving and investment.

The key elements of this developmental mindset and empowering culture are the following:

  1. development oriented culture of hard work and creativity

A progressive and development oriented culture needs to be involved to link the people's way of life to the attainment of the goals of the development vision with particular regard to cultivating and nurturing a culture of entrepreneurship and self-development through creative and innovative hard work, responsibility, discipline, respect for life, education, saving and investment and fostering self confidence and self esteem among individuals.

     ii.    Culture of saving and investment

A culture and habit of saving and investing productively to generate wealth for individuals, households, communities and the nation has to be cultivated and promoted. In the same vein, a culture of wealth creation and accumulation for development must also be reinforced by a culture of maintenance to prevent unnecessary loss of capital stock.

    iii.             Developmental community spirit

A positive community spirit well balanced with individual initiative in the promotion and management of socio-economic development activities and in other national affairs, at all levels of society, should be developed by inculcating a culture of sharing of ideas and facilities within communities and between communities as one way of pooling resources for the good of all.

     iv.           broad human development strategy

There is need to promote a broad human development investment strategy which involves a wide range of players as well as a broad resources base which embraces individuals, families, communities, agencies and corporate bodies.

    v.          a learning society

The society should be  encouraged to learn continuously in order to upgrade and improve its capacity to respond to threats and to exploit every opportunity for its own betterment and for the improvement of its quality of life.

    vi.          Incentive system to reward such attributes as excellence, creativity, innovation

The management environment should be transformed at all levels. This can be achieved by putting into place incentives that encourage and reward individuals, groups and firms to embrace initiative, creativity, innovativeness and excellence. This transformation must be reflected in the education system, training institutions, recruitment and promotion process and in business culture.

    vii.        Education as a strategic change agent

Education should be treated as a strategic agent for mindset transformation and for the creation of a well educated nation, sufficiently equipped with the knowledge needed to competently and competitively solve the development challenges which face the nation. In this light, the education system should be restructured and transformed qualitatively with a focus on promoting creativity and problem solving.

4.2               Competence and Competitiveness

Competence of the nation in the management of development will be achieved when the government provides a conducive environment for actors to effectively harness domestic resources in order to attain competitiveness in their diverse economic activities. Competence and competitiveness, as driving forces, will be realized through sound macroeconomic policies, adequate and reliable infrastructural development, quality education, effective utilization of domestic resources, higher productivity and strengthening of the capacity to effectively anticipate and respond to external changes. 

Among the strategies for the realization of this goal are the following:

i.       Sound macroeconomic management

Reorientation of the role of government and the enhancement of its core competence in providing leadership through public policy deserves the highest priority. The aim being to ensure stability, continuity and predictability of the environment in which economic decisions are made. There is need to put in place a sound and stable macroeconomic environment recognizing the prime importance of getting the macroeconomic  fundamentals right and their resultant role in attaining high levels of domestic savings and investment, promoting price stability and the management of macroeconomic balances to ensure that the Tanzanian society does not live beyond its means.

ii.           Infrastructural development

Investment in infrastructure must be accorded the highest priority and be spearheaded by the government. This investment must also involve the private sector and communities generally. In particular, the development of the road network is absolutely essential for promoting rural development. Investment in energy, water and telecommunications is also central to the stimulation of local and foreign investment and for creating wealth and employment-generating activities.

iii.       Promotion of science and technology education

The education system must instill a science and technology culture from its lowest levels, giving a high standard of education to all children between the age of 6 to 15. Basic sciences and mathematics must be accorded signal importance in keeping with the demands of the modern technological age. Science and technology education and awareness of its applications for promoting and enhancing productivity should permeate the whole society through continuous learning and publicity campaigns.

iv.        Promotion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

Advanced micro-electronic information and communication technologies (ICTs) are central to competitive social and economic transformation. ICT costs are continuing to fall while their capabilities and resultant profitability enhancements are increasing.

These technologies are a major driving force for the realization of Vision. They should be harnessed persistently in all sectors of the economy and should be put to benefit of all social groups with a view to enabling the meeting of basic needs of the people, increasing productivity and promoting competitiveness.

The new opportunities which the ICTs are opening up can be harnessed to meet the goals of the Vision. However, appropriate skills and capabilities would have to be put in place. This task demands that adequate investments are made to improve the quality of science based education and to create a knowledge society generally.

v.     The utilization of domestic resources

The mobilization and effective utilization of domestic resources (natural, financial and human) is the foundation on which the realization of the Vision rests. These resources should be utilized to build adaptive capacity for promoting economic activities that enjoy comparative and competitive advantages with a view to minimize the impact of external economic shifts and shocks.

vi.      Transformation of the economy towards competitiveness

The quality of livelihood should be raised by increasing the level of productivity in all sectors. This goal can be achieved by transforming the economy into a strong, resilient and competitive one, buttressed by science and technology. The strategy to be adopted is that of transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one with low productivity to a diversified and semi-industrialized economy with a modern rural sector and high productivity in agricultural production which generates reasonably high incomes and ensures food security and food self-sufficiency. The diversification of the economy must be based on a dynamic industrialization programme focused on local resource-based industries (agro-industries) and capable of meeting the needs of other sectors whilst continuously developing activities that have dynamic comparative advantages.

vii.    Development of the capacity to anticipate and respond to external changes

The capacity to anticipate and effectively respond to external changes must be developed as a driving force in a world of changing market, technological and environmental conditions. High priority must be given to organizational learning and creativity in response to the challenges of nature (including disasters) and to developments in the regional and global economy.

4.3               Good Governance and the Rule of Law

Governance must be made an instrument for the promotion and realisation of development, equity, unity and peace buttressed by the rule of law and involving public participation in the war against corruption and other vices in society. Good governance must permeate the modalities of social organization, coordination and interaction for development. This can be achieved by an institutional framework which is capable of mobilizing all the capacities in society and coordinating action for development. Good governance must be cultivated by promoting the culture of accountability and by clearly specifying how incentives are provided for and related to performance and how sanctions are imposed.

An appropriate institutional framework is needed to exhort and exhilarate the commitment of men, women and youths to stimulate creativity, galvanize diverse efforts and recognize and reward deserving performance. Three basic principles underpin this institutional framework:

i.       Unleashing the power of the market and private sector

Harnessing the power of the market and the dynamism of private initiative to achieve a high economic growth.

ii.      Striking a balance between the State and other institutions

The role of the State and its new place in the economy must be clearly redefined to permit and facilitate various actors (e.g. the family, business enterprises and civic organizations) to participate in the market in the context of national and global realities.

Specifically, the role of the State must be to:

  • Ensure that a legal and regulatory framework is in place and functioning.

  • Undertake directly and encourage other actors to undertake investments in infrastructure development.

  • Undertake directly and encourage others to invest in education and training.

  • Ensure efficiency and commitment to developing and building the State's capacity to facilitate and regulate the development process including influencing and facilitating strategic investments and selective industrial support.

  • Ensure that markets permit a wide participation of  men, women, youths and the entire citizenry in activities which enable the realization of the Vision. The government will have to put in place affirmative action programmes which provide special support for promoting the participation of all the indigenous population in the wealth creation and ownership process. These programmes will need to be effectively supported to ensure that the place of the indigenous Tanzanians in the ownership and control of the economy is enhanced; and

  • Ensure that mechanisms for promoting dialogue, consultations and networks of various actors in development are put in place and are made to work.

iii.        Promoting democratic and popular participation

Deliberate efforts must be made to empower the people and catalyse their democratic and popular participation. The strategy should entail empowering local governments and communities and promoting broad-based grassroots participation in the mobilization of resources, knowledge and experience with a view to stimulating initiatives at all levels of society.

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Effective realisation of the development Vision 2025 hinges on its implementation. There are two key prerequisite for effective implementation of the Development Vision 2025. These are good governance and competitiveness of the economy. It is obvious that these forces cannot happen by themselves but have to be deliberately grown and natured. In this regard, if it so happens (for instance) none of these prerequisites are created, there is obvious possibility that by the year 2025 there would be no positive impact on the quality of life of the people and instead it would increasingly worsen year after year. If there would be good governance and a weak economy or a competitive economy and weak governance there would be some possibilities of realising some positive results although by all means, these achievements cannot be sustainable and thus would not be effective in improving the quality of life of the people. The Economy cannot be sustained if there is a weak leadership and the positive impact of good governance would not be realized with a declining economy. Sustainable realisation of the Development Vision 2025 would therefore hinge on the combination of good governance and a strong, competitive economy.

Tanzania's experience reflects clearly the important role of leadership in the development of its men and women. At the promulgation of the Arusha Declaration, good governance was identified as one of the key prerequisites for attaining the development goals of the Declaration. Various policies were adopted aiming at attaining rapid transformation of the socio-economic structure and improving the quality of life of men and women of which sensitisation of the society at large for the purpose of realizing effective implementation of these policies was accorded high priority. Along with this, various training programmes to build up capacities or skills for those responsible for implementation were prepared and implemented.

Just as it was for the Arusha Declaration good governance is essential for the successful realisation of the Development Vision 2025. It is essential that the leadership has a developmental mindset and be able to interpret these views in executing their daily duties. It is also essential for the leadership to have the capacity to build and support existence of an effective administrative system that would effectively follow-up and manage the implementation process. This also requires availability of a leadership which continuously learns, listens and which is tolerant to opposing views and opinions of various groups of the society. In this regard, appropriate measures to prepare the leadership to adapt to this new framework have to be put in place and or in those areas where these measures are already effective be strengthened. In addition to building capacities, it will be essential for the implementors to be of the same mind-set and vision as their leaders.

There is a very close relationship between the quality of life of the society as well as an individual and the capacity of the economy in which it enables an individual, society and the nation at large to live and sustain higher quality of life. Tanzania has ample experience in this area. Until the mid 1970s the Tanzania economy was strong and growing at an average rate of between 5 - 6 percent per annum and the inflation rate was considerably low. The high level in the standards of living of the people which was attained then is largely attributed to that high level of economic growth. Failure to sustain such standard of living in the latter years was a consequence of economic instability which occurred during that period. Standards of living deteriorated despite the fact that the economy was much better than it had been in the 1960s and 1970s. The economy started to stagnate and was reflected by a slowing down of economic growth and high rates of inflation.

In order to attain real economic recovery and surpass the levels of 1960s and 1970s, it is essential to ensure existence of a stable economy with a high rate of growth. What is required therefore is to build a strong and resilient economy that is capable of responding accordingly and capitalize on the benefits resulting from an increasingly competitive environment. The leadership and implementers will be expected to identify the appropriate policies and strategies that would enable the nation to attain such an economic structure.

The implementation of the Development Vision 2025 should fundamentally embody the following attributes:

i.              Developmental mindset and competitiveness

In order for the Tanzania society to attain this level, there is need to:-

  • Ensure existence of sound economic management;

  • Increasingly promote investment in infrastructure by involving government, private sector and various communities of the society;

  • Reactivate the commitment to self-reliance, and recultivate resourcefulness and savings culture in order to curb and overcome the donor dependency syndrome which has led many Tanzanians into unprecedented apathy;

  • Transform the education system so that it can develop the human capital in tandem with the socio-economic changes envisaged in the Vision 2025. The curriculum at various levels of education should be overhauled along side the needs of implementing the vision 2025.


ii.            Democratization and popular Participation

In order for the Tanzania Society to reach this level, there is a need to:-

  • Create an open and democratic society that provides equal opportunity to every person. This entails creation of an active and participatory civil society in the articulation of its needs and in taking pride to fulfill its societal responsibilities;

  • Sensitize society to use the democratic election mechanism at its disposal to elect good incorruptible and responsible leaders. Leaders with personal integrity, committed to the development of society and to the pursuit of the interests and welfare of the whole society;

  • Improve public service delivery by ensuring that public servants are accountable to the people;

  • Permit a greater role for local actors to own and drive the process of their development. Local people know their problems best and are better placed to judge what they need, what is possible to achieve and how it can effectively be achieved;

  • Decentralize the political administration and the fiscal structure roles and responsibilities on the basis of the principle of subsidiarity to commit individuals, households, communities and local government to the pursuit of the common Vision goal;

iii.           Monitoring, Evaluation and Review

This framework is essential in order to:-

  • Ensure that the process of evaluation and monitoring is used to track down progress towards the realization of the Development Vision goals. The best way to track down such progress is to start with ~ The envisioned end-result~and work backwards to map out the milestones;

  • Develop specific performance benchmarks and measurable outputs to assist in monitoring the process of implementing the Development Vision goals;

  • Review the Development Vision in every five years so to gauge how the nation is faring and what adjustments need to be made as part of a regular evaluation and monitoring exercise.

  • Establish an efficient system of information and communication to facilitate timely monitoring and evaluation and ensuring a synergy between the various actors in society.

iv.        Governance and the Rule of Law

Existence of this framework requires the society to:-

  • Build the capacity of the public sector, civil society, media, parliament, the law enforcement institutions and others inside and outside the government as a means to build accountability to concerns public;

  • Sensitize the people and raise their level of awareness as necessitated by the need to implement the Development Vision;

  • Adopt strategies to build integrity by promoting accountability and transparency;

  • Ensure that all service delivering institutions provide correct information and analysis in response to their obligations to society;

  • Enshrine and entrench the pillars and core values of the Development Vision into the Union Constitution to make them sacrosanct and thereby galvanizing Tanzanians behind their practical realization.

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The Tanzania development Vision 2025 seeks to realize patriotism, nationalism and to strengthen national cohesion of all the people in society, taking into consideration current environment in the economic, political and other relevant factors. The national cohesion will be realized only when the implementation of the Development Vision entails equal opportunities for participation of all the people and the same opportunities extended to all people for the enjoyment of the fruits of its achievements. The formulation of the Development Vision 2025 has been realized through a national consensus which involved extensive consultations with the various groups in Tanzania society in the form of workshops, interviews, meetings, etc. It is emphasised that the Development vision's implementation be equally participatory. For it is only through such a participatory process that the Development Vision will acquire a people-centred and people-driven character which is the main foundation for obtaining the people's genuine commitment towards ensuring the realisation of their goals.

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