TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Tanzania Vision 2025
High quality Livelihood
Peace, Stability and Unity
A well Educated and Learning Society
A strong and Competitive Economy
2.0 TANZANIA PAST VISIONS AND
2.1 Tanzania's Past
2.2.1 Donor-Dependence Syndrome and a Dependent and Defeatist Development
2.2.2 A Weak Economy and Low Capacity for Economic
2.2.3 Failure in Governance and Organization for
2.2.4 Ineffective Implementation syndrome
3.0 THE TARGETS OF THE VISION
3.1 High Quality
3.2 Good Governance and the Rule of
3.3 A Strong and Competitive Economy
4.0 DRIVING FORCES FOR THE REALIZATION OF THE
4.1 Developmental Mindset and Empowering
4.2 Competence and
4.3 Good Governance and the Rule of Law
5.0 IMPLEMENTING THE VISION
6.0 CONCLUDING REMARKS
are standing at the threshold of the 21st Century, a Century
that will be characterised by competition. It is clear, therefore, that it
will be a Century dominated by those with advanced technological capacity,
high productivity, modern and efficient transport and communication
infrastructure and, above all highly skilled manpower imbued with
initiative. If we are to be active participants in the global developments
of the twenty-first century we must, as a Nation, find ways of improving
and strengthening ourselves in all these areas.
coming to terms with this challenge the people of Tanzania, led by their
Government, recognised the need to prepare a New National Development
Vision which will guide economic and social development efforts up to the
year 2025. The objective of this Development Vision is to awaken,
co-ordinate and direct the people's efforts, minds and our national
resources towards those core sectors that will enable us attain our
development goals and withstand the expected intensive economic
competition ahead of us.
is necessary, therefore, that this Development Vision is shared and
supported by all Tanzanians. That is why we sought the views and consensus
of a wide cross-section of our society during the formulation process. The
draft Development Vision was discussed by various societal groups
including Honourable Members of Parliament, all political parties, leaders
of various religious denominations, women and youth organisations,
chambers of commerce and industry, farmers, professional associations,
renowned personalities in our nation's history and ordinary Tanzanians. A
Development Vision formulated through such a process is an important
pillar in building that level of national unity and cohesion needed to
ensure economic development in an environment of peace, security and
formulation of this Vision benefited from an in-depth assessment of our
nation's history and direction. We made an evaluation of where we came
from, where we are now, and where we want to go. We reviewed our politics
as well as our development planning framework and its implementation
mechanisms. We have sought to learn from both our strengths and our
shortcomings in these past initiatives.
Vision 2025 has identified that kind of enabling environment that is
essential for the nation to flourish economically, socially, politically
and culturally. It has taken into account expected changes and trends in
the world of tomorrow. The implementation of the Vision will have to
include developing Tanzania's position vis a vis those changes, and the
need to deal with them through hard work, initiative, skills, as well as
to make use of the many opportunities that will appear and the resources
available in our country.
and discipline in planning and implementation is the key to success. In
reaching a national consensus on this Vision, we have issued a declaration
of our determination to disentangle ourselves from the scourge of poverty.
The task before us, therefore, is for each one of us in our different
capacities to be aware of, and implement with discipline, our different
roles in order to achieve the objectives we have set for ourselves.
Ministries and other government institutions, the private sector,
non-governmental organisations, civil society, co-operative societies,
villages and all other social groups must direct themselves to contributing
towards effective implementation of the objectives of this Vision.
stability and security of citizens and their property constitute a
fundamental and necessary environment for development. Without these
prerequisites, this Vision will be meaningless and no development will
occur.It is, therefore,the responsibility of each one of us to eschew
anything which can divide Tanzanians, such as on the basis of religion,
tribe, race, gender or place of origin. It is also the responsibility of
each one of us to isolate and censure anyone who entertains, promotes or
nurtures disrespect, disharmony, hatred and mistrust in our country. I
believe that the majority of Tanzanians are patriotic people of integrity,
ready to come together to fight these vices.
am confident that with the unity which we already have as a Nation, we
will succeed in the implementation of this Vision. What can be done today
should not wait for tomorrow.
bless Tanzania and abundantly provide us with the strength and capacity to
implement our Vision.
OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
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need to formulate a new economic and social development vision for
Tanzania emanated from the outcomes of economic reforms - especially those
which were pursued since 1986. These social and economic reform measures
were taken in response to the economic crisis that had persisted in the
country and the world as a whole since the early years of 1980s. Secondly,
the government had realised that those earlier development policies and
strategies were not in consonance with the principles of a market led
economy and technological development occurring in the world. The
government therefore started preparing three year reform programmes with
strategies, generally, focusing on only a few economic and social areas,
and the areas of focus changing frequently. These structural adjustment
programmes, have been followed for a long time, about fifteen years. Over
this long period, the whole philosophy of working for the country's
development and that of its people started losing direction and as a
result the country lost its vision which had originally been based on
long-term development objectives. The government and the society in
general realised that the nation lacked direction and a philosophy for
long-term development. The new Development Vision 2025 feels this vacuum.
Government started the formulation exercise of this development Vision in
1995. A Team of Experts, appointed from various sectors in the society,
was the focal point of this exercise under the auspices of the Planning
Commission. Observing the need to build a national consensus over the
Vision's objectives, people's participation was advocated right from the
early stages of the exercise. People's participation was effected through
various methods including conducting symposia, interviews and dialogue
with various people, and meetings which brought together people from
various social settings in society. The mass media was also closely
involved through publishing special articles and features in newspapers,
debates and discussions in radio and television programmes.
basic issues in the development Vision are elaborated in six areas. First
is an elaboration of the concept and scope of national development vision.
This part describes attributes our country is expected to have attained by
the year 2025. These include people having attained a high quality of
life; peace, tranquillity and national unity; good governance; an educated
society imbued with an ambition to develop; and an economy which is
competitive with sustained growth for the benefit of all people.
is a brief analysis of approaches of previous national development visions
pursued since independence. This analysis spells out the observed
successes and problems encountered which justified the need to formulate
the new Development Vision.
three principal objectives of the Vision 2025 - which are; achieving
quality and good life for all; good governance and the rule of law; and
building a strong and resilient economy that can effectively withstand
global competition - have been described in detail in section three. These
objectives not only deal with economic issues, but also
include social issues such as education, health, the environment and
increasing involvement of the people in working for their own development.
The thrust of these objectives is to attain a sustainable development of
fourth section deals with important issues which must be borne in mind
during the implementation of the vision's objectives. It outlines the
basic pillars with which the society at large will be guided in order to
ensure a successful implementation of the Vision. These implementation
driving forces or pillars, include among others, the need for Tanzania
society as a whole treasure a competitive development mindset as well as
nurturing a self-reliance culture.
fifth section offers basic guidelines on the implementation of the Vision
which include noting the importance of undertaking reviews and reforms of
existing laws and structures of various institutions in order to ensure
that they meet the requirements of implementing the objectives of this
Vision. The participation of the people in preparing and implementing
plans for their own development is also emphasized, including putting in
place an appropriate framework for coordinating and evaluating the
implementation of the Vision. It is stressed that only through this
participatory process that the Vision will be able to promote people's
development and its management by people themselves. These are basic
issues in making the people accept the responsibility to ensure the
realization of their own development aspirations.
I believe that if we shall internalize in our minds all the important
issues outlined in this Vision, our nation will have made a very big
stride in, promoting the desire for economic development and people's
welfare. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Team of
Experts and other people who have participated in the preparation of this
Vision. I also wish to thank development partners from outside the country
for their financial and technical support towards a successful accoplishment of this exercise. I recognise especially the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), the Government of Japan, the European
Union and Government of the Republic of Ireland.
is my hope that these and the other partners will continue to work with us
during the implementation stage; particularly by giving us moral and
material support in implementing the priority areas nationally identified
to lead us towards the attainment of the objectives of this Vision 2025.
WAMCHILOWA MALOCHO (MP)
Minister of State and Vice Chairman
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the mid-1980s, the government had realised that the past development
policies and strategies were not adequately responding to changing
market and technological conditions in the regional and world economy
and were also not adapting to changes in the domestic socio-economic
response, beginning mid-1986, the Government adopted socio-economic
reforms which continue to be implemented to date. However, it has
increasingly become apparent to the Government and its people that these
socio-economic reforms are not adequately informed by a national
long-term development philosophy and direction.
was out of the realization that these reforms had to be underpinned by a
long-term development philosophy, if they were to be owned and sustained
by the people, that the idea of formulating a national vision emerged.
Moreover, the Government recognised the importance of re-kindling the
hopes and expectations of the people as well as their patriotism and
nationalistic aspirations thus reinforcing the need for a national
vision for development is an articulation of a desirable future
condition or situation which a nation envisages to attain and the plausible
course of action to be taken for its achievement. A national vision
therefore seeks to actively mobilize the people and other resources
towards the achievement of shared goals. A shared vision arouses
people's aspirations and creates the spark that lifts the nation out of
the mundane. In the process, it instils the courage and determination to
rise to challenges at the individual, community and national levels. A
vision is a vehicle of hope and an inspiration for motivating the people
to search and work harder for the betterment of their livelihood and for
The Tanzania Vision 2025
Tanzanian who is born today will be fully grown up, will have joined the
working population and will probably be a young parent by the year 2025.
Similarly, a Tanzanian who has just joined the labour force will be
preparing to retire by the year 2025. What kind of society will have
been created by such Tanzanians in the year 2025? What is envisioned is
that the society these Tanzanians will be living in by then will be a
substantially developed one with a high quality livelihood. Abject
poverty will be a thing of the past. In other words, it is envisioned that
Tanzanians will have graduated from a least developed country to a
middle income country by the year 2025 with a high level of human
development. The economy will have been transformed from a low
productivity agricultural economy to a semi-industrialized one led by
modernized and highly productive agricultural activities which are
effectively integrated and buttressed by supportive industrial and
service activities in the rural and urban areas. A solid foundation for
a competitive and dynamic economy with high productivity will have been
laid. Consistent with this vision, Tanzania of 2025 should be a nation
imbued with five main attributes;
stability and unity.
well educated and learning society; and
competitive economy capable of producing sustainable growth and shared
a nation's development should be people-centred, based on sustainable
and shared growth and be free from abject poverty. For Tanzania, this
development means that the creation of wealth and its distribution in
society must be equitable and free from inequalities and all forms of
social and political relations which inhibit empowerment and effective
democratic and popular
participation of social groups (men and women, boys and girls, the young
and old and the able-bodied and disabled persons) in society. In
particular, by the year 2025, racial and gender imbalances will have
been redressed such that economic activities will not be identifiable by
gender or race. All social relations and processes which manifest and
breed inequality, in all aspects of the society (i.e., law, politics,
employment, education, culture), will have been reformed.
Peace, Stability and Unity
nation should enjoy peace, political stability, national unity and
social cohesion in an environment of democracy and political and
social tolerance. Although Tanzania has enjoyed national unity, peace
and stability for a long time, these attributes must continue to be
cultivated, nurtured and sustained as important pillars for the
realization of the Vision.
cherishes good governance and the rule of law in the process of
creating wealth and sharing benefits in society and seeks to ensure
that its people are empowered with the capacity to make their leaders
and public servants accountable. By 2025, good governance should have
permeated the national socio-economic structure thereby ensuring a
culture of accountability, rewarding good performance and effectively
curbing corruption and other vices in society.
Well Educated and Learning Society
envisages to be a nation whose people are ingrained with a
developmental mindset and competitive spirit. These attributes are
driven by education and knowledge and are critical in enabling the
nation to effectively utilize knowledge in mobilizing domestic
resources for assuring the provision of people's basic needs and for
attaining competitiveness in the regional and global economy. Tanzania
would brace itself to attain creativity, innovativeness and a high
level of quality education in order to respond to development challenges and
effectively compete regionally and internationally, cognisant of the
reality that competitive leadership in the 21st century
will hinge on the level and quality of education and knowledge. To
this effect, Tanzania should:
self reliance driven by the psychological liberation of the
mindset and the people's sense of confidence in order to enable
the effective determination and ownership of the development
agenda with the primary objective of satisfying the basic needs of
all the people - men, women and children.
a nation whose people have a positive mindset and a culture which
cherishes human development through hard work, professionalism,
entrepreneurship, creativity, innovativeness and ingenuity and who
have confidence in and high respect for all people irrespective of
gender. The people must cultivate a community spirit; one which,
however, is appropriately balanced with respect for individual
a nation with high quality of education at all levels; a nation
which produces the quantity and quality of educated people
sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the
society's problems, meet the challenges of development and attain
competitiveness at regional and global levels.
strong and Competitive economy
should have created a strong, diversified, resilient and competitive
economy which can effectively cope with the challenges of development
and which can also easily and confidently adapt to the changing market
and technological conditions in the regional and global economy
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TANZANIA PAST VISIONS AND IMPEDIMENTS
Tanzania's Past Visions
has gone through two national visions: first, the Vision to achieve
independence. Every Tanzanian understood and accepted that goal, which
was a basic human right. However, having attained independence, it was
realized that not everybody understood his or her consequent obligation;
namely, that enjoying the fruits of independence implied hard work.
Hence the post-independence catchword "Uhuru na Kazi".That
catchword was intended to exalt the
importance of hard work in realizing the development which was
championed in the struggle for independence.
second national Vision was the Arusha Declaration. It articulated a
philosophy of socio-economic liberation based on socialism and
self-reliance as the long-term national goal of Tanzanians. The
Declaration was accepted by the majority of Tanzanians and galvanized
them behind its realization. Thus since February 1967, the development
vision of Tanzania as well as the policies for social and economic
transformation have been guided by the principles and programmes
enshrined in the Arusha Declaration.
is notable, however, that the strategy of the Arusha Declaration did not
sufficiently address the complexity and dynamic character of policies
and incentive structures which were necessary to effectively drive the
development process. The strategy was based overly on state-control of
the major means of production, exchange and distribution and on the
prospect of a growing and viable public sector (through public
investment), as the principal engine of economic growth and development.
these strategy shortcomings, the Arusha Declaration credibly sought to
realize a set of fundamental moral, spiritual, ethical and civil values
which stand the test of time. Thus Tanzania today prides itself of and
enjoys national unity, social cohesion, peace and stability largely as a
result of the Declaration's core social values. These values have to be
acknowledged and should form part of the underlying underpinnings of the
central thrust of the first two visions was the commitment to achieve
substantial progress in attaining higher standards of living as reflected
in the various development plans. In particular, Tanzania vowed to
eradicate poverty, ignorance and disease. And although reasonable
progress has been achieved in the fields of education and health, there
is concern that the momentum and the level of progress made in these
areas has not been equal to expectations. In fact, during the 1980s, the signs
of reversal in some of the achievements became evident. In this context,
the underlying factors and forces which have persistently impeded the
realization of the goals of the development plans and programmes need to
be identified in order to engineer a break from the past and deploy more
appropriate driving forces to assure socio-economic progress for the
future. Four main impediments have been identified:
donor dependency syndrome and a dependent and defeatist
weak and low capacity for economic management.
in good governance and in the organization of production and
Donor-Dependence Syndrome and a Dependent and Defeatist
mindset of the people of Tanzania and their leader has succumbed to
donor dependency and has resulted in an erosion of initiative and lack
of ownership of the development agenda. This condition has not been
conducive to addressing the development challenges with dignity,
confidence, determination and persistence through hard work and
creativity. The educational system has not been structured to counter
this deterioration in the ownership of the development agenda and in
fostering self-confidence in the determination of the nation's
The following characteristics have become evident:
dependence and the erosion of confidence, dignity and
determination have demobilized the ability to effectively utilize
human, physical and mental capacities to take initiative and to
earnestly search for creative options to solve developmental
problems. As a result, considerable potential; capabilities in
Tanzania have not been effectively marshaled and deployed for
mindset of the leaders and people of Tanzania has neither been
supportive of hard work, ingenuity and creativity, nor has it
provided a conducive environmental for these attributes to emerge.
Thus, there is a high degree of apathy and lack of accountability
and self-motivation. Initiative, ingenuity, creativity and
innovativeness in society are at a low ebb. Consequently, a
culture of admiring "effortless"
success has erupted and, with it, productive individual
initiative and the spirit of the community development have not
taken a positive shape.
The level and quality of education that has been attained has not
been adequate to meet the growing development challenges and to
enable the search for solutions to the development problems that
confront the nation. In particular, education has not adequately
and appropriately been geared to integrate the individual into the
community. Equally, it also has not been able to innovatively
engage Tanzanians in entrepreneurship and self-employment.
A Weak Economy and Low Capacity for Economic Management
capacity for economic management has not been in concert with the
demands for macro-economic stability and has not responded to changing
conditions as quickly as it should. Generally, there has been some
degree of macroeconomic instability. Policy response to changing
conditions has been slow. Assuming that all other factors were
constant, this situation would impute a lack of policy-making capacity
to anticipate and effectively respond to changing conditions. As a
result, an environment which has not been conducive to the sustenance
of economic stability necessary for an appreciable and continuous flow
of investments has been created. Further aggravating this situation
has been the excessive use of administrative controls extending to
non-strategic spheres and even precluding the mobilization of
capabilities outside the government. The excessive use of
administrative controls and regulations have negated the possibility
of harnessing market forces to achieve development objectives with the
result that the economy has become weak.
general picture of the Tanzania economy reflects the following:
economy has remained largely untransformed. Agriculture, the
backbone of the economy, continues to be dependent mainly or
rainfall and on backward technology. Thus agricultural
productivity is low and erratic.
level in other sectors has equally remained low. The available
domestic resources have not been adequately mobilized and
effectively utilized to promote development on a robust and
sustainable basis. This low level of productivity also reflects a
low degree of creativity and innovativeness including the low
level of utilization of science and technology.
structure of the economy has continued to be dominated by primary
production, thus making the economy seriously vulnerable of
frequent changes in international commodity market conditions and
newer technologies which significantly use less raw materials.
has generally been characterized by a low level of mobilization of
domestic natural, human and financial resources to produce wealth and
to raise the standards of living of the people.
Failures in Governance and Organization for development
Over time, and particularly in recent years, there are indications
that there is a risk of cracks in social cohesion and national unity
taking shape. Corruption and other vices in society have been on the
increase. This situation raises great concern. The rule of law and the
voices of the people in the development process have tended to be
weak. The national institutional and organizational structures have
not been reviewed to cope with the demands of the on-going reforms. As a
result, these structures have not been supportive of evolving social
relations which promote the participation of all partners in
development and have equally failed to effectively mobilize domestic
resources and capabilities to meet the emerging challenges of
market-oriented and private sector-led development.
Ineffective Implementation Syndrome
have developed a propensity to prepare and pronounce plans and
programmes, and ambitions which are not accompanied by effective
implementation, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. As a result,
implementation has been weak. This situation has given rise to the
erosion of trust and confidence among the people on their leaders. It
is evident that the people are now less enthusiastic about
participating in national endeavors. Apathy has set in.
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THE TARGETS OF THE
Tanzania Vision 2025 aims at achieving a high quality livelihood for its
people. attain good governance through the rule of law and develop a
strong and competitive economy. It is envisioned that the following
specific achievements would be attainable by the year 2025:
High quality Livelihood
high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians is expected to be attained
through strategies which ensure the realisation of the following goals:
self-sufficiency and food security.
primary education, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment
of a level of tertiary education and training that is commensurate
with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to
effectively respond and master the development challenges at all
equality and the empowerment of women in all socio-economic and
political relations and cultures.
to quality primary health care for all.
to quality reproductive health services for all individuals of
in infant and maternal mortality rates by three-quarters of current
access to safe water.
expectancy comparable to the level attained by typical middle income
of abject poverty
Good Governance and the Rue of Law
is desired that the Tanzanian society should be characterized by:
moral and cultural uprightness.
adherence to and respect for the rule of law
of corruption and other vices.
learning society which is confident, learns from its own development
experience and that of others and owns and determines its own
A Strong and Competitive Economy
economy is expected to have the following characteristics:
A diversified and semi-industrialized economy with a substantial industrial sector comparable to typical middle-income countries.
Macroeconomic stability manifested by a low inflation economy and basic macroeconomic balances.
A growth rate
of 8% per annum or more.
An adequate level of physical infrastructure needed to cope with the requirements of the Vision in all sectors.
An active and competitive player in the regional and world markets, with the capacity to articulate and promote national interests and to adjust quickly to regional and global market shifts.
It is also envisaged that fast growth will be pursued while effectively reversing current adverse trends in the loss and degradation of environmental resources (such as forests, fisheries, fresh water, climate, soils, biodiversity) and in the accumulation of hazardous substances.
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DRIVING FORCES FOR THE REALIZATION OF THE VISION
Vision 2025 can be realized if Tanzanians capitalize on their strengths
and engage the appropriate driving forces for development and effectively
avoid the impediments which have held back their development. The major
strengths which Tanzanians must capitalize on are national
unity, social cohesion, peace and stability. However, these assets, born
out of the Arusha Declaration, should not be taken for granted. They have
been cultivated over a long period of time and are the pillars upon which
the hopes and expectations of the majority of Tanzanians rest. Indeed,
there are indications that, in recent years, the momentum derived from
these hopes and expectations has been on the decline. The present
challenge is to ensure that deliberate efforts are made to rekindle the
hope, confidence, faith and commitment among the men, women and the entire
citizenry if the goals of the Vision are going to be realised, taking into
account the changing conditions.
is evident that both the global and the Tanzanian economy have changed
fundamentally since the adoption of the Arusha Declaration. Tanzanians
will therefore have to adapt to these new changes and realities.
Specifically, it is important to recognise the following new
characteristics of the national and global economy:
on-set of political and economic pluralism.
of the limitations of policies of public sector-led development and
administrative control of the economy in a centrally planned fashion.
recognition of individual initiative and the private sector as the
central driving forces for building a strong, productive and renewing
welfare responsibilities are more focused on cost-effective ways of
enhancing access to and the quality of social services.
fast changing market conditions and technological developments
determinants of international economic relations are being influenced
by post-cold war geopolitical factors.
economic behavior is being transformed by globalization and
regionalism, trends which undermine inward looking economic
characteristics pose new challenges which demand the adoption of new
driving forces capable to graduate Tanzania from a least developed country
to a middle income country with a high level of human development
characterized in improvements in the quality of livelihood of the people.
In this context, the following three key driving forces need to be
promoted and utilized:
developmental mindset imbued with confidence, commitment and
empowering cultural values.
and a spirit of competitiveness; and
governance and the rule of law.
Developmental Mindset and Empowering Culture
priority must be given to education and continuous learning Equally, the
effective transformation of the mindset and culture to promote attitudes
of self development, community development, confidence and commitment to
face development challenges and exploit every opportunity for the
improvement of the quality of livelihood is of prime importance. The
effective ownership of the development agenda coupled with the spirit of
self-reliance, at all societal levels, are major driving forces for the
realization of the Vision. Tanzanians should learn to appreciate and
honour hard work, creativity, professionalism and entrepreneurship and
strive to develop a culture of saving and investment.
key elements of this developmental mindset and empowering culture are
oriented culture of hard work and creativity
progressive and development oriented culture needs to be involved to link
the people's way of life to the attainment of the goals of the
development vision with particular regard to cultivating and nurturing
a culture of entrepreneurship and self-development through creative
and innovative hard work, responsibility, discipline, respect for
life, education, saving and investment and fostering self confidence
and self esteem among individuals.
of saving and investment
culture and habit of saving and investing productively to generate
wealth for individuals, households, communities and the nation has to
be cultivated and promoted. In the same vein, a culture of wealth
creation and accumulation for development must also be reinforced by a
culture of maintenance to prevent unnecessary loss of capital stock.
positive community spirit well balanced with individual initiative in
the promotion and management of socio-economic development activities
and in other national affairs, at all levels of society, should be
developed by inculcating a culture of sharing of ideas and facilities
within communities and between communities as one way of pooling
resources for the good of all.
human development strategy
is need to promote a broad human development investment strategy which
involves a wide range of players as well as a broad resources base
which embraces individuals, families, communities, agencies and
society should be encouraged to learn continuously in order to upgrade and
improve its capacity to respond to threats and to exploit every
opportunity for its own betterment and for the improvement of its
quality of life.
system to reward such attributes as excellence, creativity, innovation
management environment should be transformed at all levels. This can
be achieved by putting into place incentives that encourage and reward
individuals, groups and firms to embrace initiative, creativity,
innovativeness and excellence. This transformation must be reflected
in the education system, training institutions, recruitment and
promotion process and in business culture.
as a strategic change agent
should be treated as a strategic agent for mindset transformation and
for the creation of a well educated nation, sufficiently equipped with
the knowledge needed to competently and competitively solve the
development challenges which face the nation. In this light, the
education system should be restructured and transformed qualitatively
with a focus on promoting creativity and problem solving.
Competence and Competitiveness
of the nation in the management of development will be achieved when the
government provides a conducive environment for actors to effectively
harness domestic resources in order to attain competitiveness in their
diverse economic activities. Competence and competitiveness, as driving
forces, will be realized through sound macroeconomic policies, adequate
and reliable infrastructural development, quality education, effective
utilization of domestic resources, higher productivity and strengthening
of the capacity to effectively anticipate and respond to external
the strategies for the realization of this goal are the following:
Sound macroeconomic management
of the role of government and the enhancement of its core competence
in providing leadership through public policy deserves the highest
priority. The aim being to ensure stability, continuity and
predictability of the environment in which economic decisions are
made. There is need to put in place a sound and stable macroeconomic
environment recognizing the prime importance of getting the
fundamentals right and their resultant role in attaining high levels
of domestic savings and investment, promoting price stability and the
management of macroeconomic balances to ensure that the Tanzanian
society does not live beyond its means.
in infrastructure must be accorded the highest priority and be
spearheaded by the government. This investment must also involve the
private sector and communities generally. In particular, the
development of the road network is absolutely essential for promoting
rural development. Investment in energy, water and telecommunications
is also central to the stimulation of local and foreign investment and
for creating wealth and employment-generating activities.
Promotion of science and technology education
education system must instill a science and technology culture from
its lowest levels, giving a high standard of education to all children
between the age of 6 to 15. Basic sciences and mathematics must be
accorded signal importance in keeping with the demands of the modern
technological age. Science and technology education and awareness of
its applications for promoting and enhancing productivity should
permeate the whole society through continuous learning and publicity
Promotion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
micro-electronic information and communication technologies (ICTs) are
central to competitive social and economic transformation. ICT costs
are continuing to fall while their capabilities and resultant
profitability enhancements are increasing.
technologies are a major driving force for the realization of Vision.
They should be harnessed persistently in all sectors of the economy
and should be put to benefit of all social groups with a view to
enabling the meeting of basic needs of the people, increasing
productivity and promoting competitiveness.
new opportunities which the ICTs are opening up can be harnessed to
meet the goals of the Vision. However, appropriate skills and
capabilities would have to be put in place. This task demands that
adequate investments are made to improve the quality of science based
education and to create a knowledge society generally.
The utilization of domestic resources
mobilization and effective utilization of domestic resources (natural,
financial and human) is the foundation on which the realization of the
Vision rests. These resources should be utilized to build adaptive
capacity for promoting economic activities that enjoy comparative and
competitive advantages with a view to minimize the impact of external
economic shifts and shocks.
Transformation of the economy towards competitiveness
quality of livelihood should be raised by increasing the level of
productivity in all sectors. This goal can be achieved by transforming
the economy into a strong, resilient and competitive one, buttressed
by science and technology. The strategy to be adopted is that of
transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one with
low productivity to a diversified and semi-industrialized economy with
a modern rural sector and high productivity in agricultural production
which generates reasonably high incomes and ensures food security and
food self-sufficiency. The diversification of the economy must be
based on a dynamic industrialization programme focused on local
resource-based industries (agro-industries) and capable of meeting the
needs of other sectors whilst continuously developing activities that
have dynamic comparative advantages.
Development of the capacity to anticipate and respond to
capacity to anticipate and effectively respond to external changes
must be developed as a driving force in a world of changing market,
technological and environmental conditions. High priority must be
given to organizational learning and creativity in response to the
challenges of nature (including disasters) and to developments in the
regional and global economy.
Good Governance and the Rule of Law
must be made an instrument for the promotion and realisation of
development, equity, unity and peace buttressed by the rule of law and
involving public participation in the war against corruption and other
vices in society. Good governance must permeate the modalities of social
organization, coordination and interaction for development. This can be
achieved by an institutional framework which is capable of mobilizing
all the capacities in society and coordinating action for development.
Good governance must be cultivated by promoting the culture of
accountability and by clearly specifying how incentives are provided for
and related to performance and how sanctions are imposed.
appropriate institutional framework is needed to exhort and exhilarate
the commitment of men, women and youths to stimulate creativity,
galvanize diverse efforts and recognize and reward deserving
performance. Three basic principles underpin this institutional
Unleashing the power of the market and private sector
the power of the market and the dynamism of private initiative to
achieve a high economic growth.
Striking a balance between the State and other institutions
role of the State and its new place in the economy must be clearly
redefined to permit and facilitate various actors (e.g. the family,
business enterprises and civic organizations) to participate in the
market in the context of national and global realities.
the role of the State must be to:
that a legal and regulatory framework is in place and functioning.
directly and encourage other actors to undertake investments in
directly and encourage others to invest in education and training.
efficiency and commitment to developing and building the State's
capacity to facilitate and regulate the development process
including influencing and facilitating strategic investments and
selective industrial support.
that markets permit a wide participation of men, women, youths
and the entire citizenry in activities which enable the
realization of the Vision. The government will have to put in
place affirmative action programmes which provide special support
for promoting the participation of all the indigenous population
in the wealth creation and ownership process. These programmes
will need to be effectively supported to ensure that the place of
the indigenous Tanzanians in the ownership and control of the
economy is enhanced; and
that mechanisms for promoting dialogue, consultations and networks
of various actors in development are put in place and are made to
Promoting democratic and popular participation
efforts must be made to empower the people and catalyse their
democratic and popular participation. The strategy should entail
empowering local governments and communities and promoting broad-based
grassroots participation in the mobilization of resources, knowledge and experience
with a view to stimulating initiatives at all levels of society.
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realisation of the development Vision 2025 hinges on its implementation.
There are two key prerequisite for effective implementation of the
Development Vision 2025. These are good governance and competitiveness of
economy. It is obvious that these forces cannot happen by themselves but
have to be deliberately grown and natured. In this regard, if it so
happens (for instance) none of these prerequisites are created, there is
obvious possibility that by the year 2025 there would be no positive
impact on the quality of life of the people and instead it would
increasingly worsen year after year. If there would be good governance and
a weak economy or a competitive economy and weak governance there would be
some possibilities of realising some positive results although by all
means, these achievements cannot be sustainable and thus would not be
effective in improving the quality of life of the people. The Economy
cannot be sustained if there is a weak leadership and the positive impact
of good governance would not be realized with a declining economy.
Sustainable realisation of the Development Vision 2025 would therefore
hinge on the combination of good governance and a strong, competitive
experience reflects clearly the important role of leadership in the
development of its men and women. At the promulgation of the Arusha
Declaration, good governance was identified as one of the key
prerequisites for attaining the development goals of the Declaration.
Various policies were adopted aiming at attaining rapid transformation of
the socio-economic structure and improving the quality of life of men and
women of which sensitisation of the society at large for the purpose of
realizing effective implementation of these policies was accorded high
priority. Along with this, various training programmes to build up
capacities or skills for those responsible for implementation were
prepared and implemented.
as it was for the Arusha Declaration good governance is essential for the
successful realisation of the Development Vision 2025. It is essential
that the leadership has a developmental mindset and be able to interpret
these views in executing their daily duties. It is also essential for the
leadership to have the capacity to build and support existence of an
effective administrative system that would effectively follow-up and
manage the implementation process. This also requires availability of a
leadership which continuously learns, listens and which is tolerant to
opposing views and opinions of various groups of the society. In this
regard, appropriate measures to prepare the leadership to adapt to this
new framework have to be put in place and or in those areas where these
measures are already effective be strengthened. In addition to building
capacities, it will be essential for the implementors to be of the same
mind-set and vision as their leaders.
is a very close relationship between the quality of life of the society as
well as an individual and the capacity of the economy in which it enables
an individual, society and the nation at large to live and sustain higher
quality of life. Tanzania has ample experience in this area. Until the mid
1970s the Tanzania economy was strong and growing at an average rate of
between 5 - 6 percent per annum and the inflation rate was considerably
low. The high level in the standards of living of the people which was
attained then is largely attributed to that high level of economic growth.
Failure to sustain such standard of living in the latter years was a
consequence of economic instability which occurred during that period.
Standards of living deteriorated despite the fact that the economy was
much better than it had been in the 1960s and 1970s. The economy started
to stagnate and was reflected by a slowing down of economic growth and
high rates of inflation.
order to attain real economic recovery and surpass the levels of 1960s and
1970s, it is essential to ensure existence of a stable economy with a high
rate of growth. What is required therefore is to build a strong and
resilient economy that is capable of responding accordingly and capitalize
on the benefits resulting from an increasingly competitive environment.
The leadership and implementers will be expected to identify the
appropriate policies and strategies that would enable the nation to attain
such an economic structure.
implementation of the Development Vision 2025 should fundamentally embody
the following attributes:
mindset and competitiveness
order for the Tanzania society to attain this level, there is need to:-
existence of sound economic management;
promote investment in infrastructure by involving government, private
sector and various communities of the society;
the commitment to self-reliance, and recultivate resourcefulness and
savings culture in order to curb and overcome the donor dependency
syndrome which has led many Tanzanians into unprecedented apathy;
the education system so that it can develop the human capital in
tandem with the socio-economic changes envisaged in the Vision 2025.
The curriculum at various levels of education should be overhauled
along side the needs of implementing the vision 2025.
and popular Participation
order for the Tanzania Society to reach this level, there is a need to:-
an open and democratic society that provides equal opportunity to
every person. This entails creation of an active and participatory
civil society in the articulation of its needs and in taking pride to
fulfill its societal responsibilities;
society to use the democratic election mechanism at its disposal to
elect good incorruptible and responsible leaders. Leaders with
personal integrity, committed to the development of society and to the
pursuit of the interests and welfare of the whole society;
public service delivery by ensuring that public servants are
accountable to the people;
a greater role for local actors to own and drive the process of their
development. Local people know their problems best and are better
placed to judge what they need, what is possible to achieve and how it
can effectively be achieved;
the political administration and the fiscal structure roles and
responsibilities on the basis of the principle of subsidiarity to
commit individuals, households, communities and local government to
the pursuit of the common Vision goal;
Evaluation and Review
framework is essential in order to:-
that the process of evaluation and monitoring is used to track down
progress towards the realization of the Development Vision goals. The
best way to track down such progress is to start with ~ The envisioned
end-result~and work backwards to map out the milestones;
specific performance benchmarks and measurable outputs to assist in
monitoring the process of implementing the Development Vision goals;
the Development Vision in every five years so to gauge how the nation
is faring and what adjustments need to be made as part of a regular
evaluation and monitoring exercise.
an efficient system of information and communication to facilitate
timely monitoring and evaluation and ensuring a synergy between the
various actors in society.
Governance and the Rule of
of this framework requires the society to:-
the capacity of the public sector, civil society, media, parliament,
the law enforcement institutions and others inside and outside the
government as a means to build accountability to concerns public;
the people and raise their level of awareness as necessitated by the
need to implement the Development Vision;
strategies to build integrity by promoting accountability and
that all service delivering institutions provide correct information
and analysis in response to their obligations to society;
and entrench the pillars and core values of the Development Vision
into the Union Constitution to make them sacrosanct and thereby
galvanizing Tanzanians behind their practical realization.
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Tanzania development Vision 2025 seeks to realize patriotism, nationalism
and to strengthen national cohesion of all the people in society, taking into
consideration current environment in the economic, political and other
relevant factors. The national cohesion will be realized only when the
implementation of the Development Vision entails equal opportunities for
participation of all the people and the same opportunities extended to all people
for the enjoyment of the fruits of its achievements. The formulation of
the Development Vision 2025 has been realized through a national consensus
which involved extensive consultations with the various groups in Tanzania
society in the form of workshops, interviews, meetings, etc. It is emphasised that the Development vision's
implementation be equally
participatory. For it is only through such a participatory process that
the Development Vision will acquire a people-centred and people-driven
character which is the main foundation for obtaining the people's genuine
commitment towards ensuring the realisation of their goals.
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